Taylor & Francis Online

Published: January 20, 2022

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Objective To compare healthcare resource use (HCRU) in patients undergoing sinus surgery with or without steroid-eluting sinus implants.

Methods A retrospective, observational cohort study using real-world evidence data (OM1, Inc, Boston, MA, USA) was conducted on adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyps who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery between 2014 and 2019 and had at least 18 months of data both before and after surgery. Patients receiving implants (“implant cohort”) were matched to patients who did not receive implants (“non-implant cohort”) based on a propensity score developed using baseline characteristics. Chi-square for binary variables and analysis of variance tests for continuous variables were applied to compare HCRU measures.

Results Comparison of the implant (N = 1983) and non-implant (N = 1983) cohorts during the 18-month follow-up period demonstrated significantly lower HCRU in those receiving implants, including all-cause outpatient visits (94.3% vs. 96.6%, p < .001), all-cause otolaryngologist visits (47.3% vs. 59.6%, p < .001) and all cause ER/urgent care visits (9.2% vs. 11.8%, p = .007), as well as sinus-related endoscopies (39.1% vs. 43.8%, p = .003). Although not statistically significant, fewer patients in the implant cohort had undergone repeat surgeries (4.6% vs. 5.3%, p = .273).

Conclusion Patients with steroid-eluting sinus implants had lower HCRU over a post-operative period of 18 months. These findings support the contention that reductions in HCRU may be achieved using steroid-eluting implants during sinus surgery.

What is known on this topic

  • Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) causes severe symptoms that lead to poor quality of life.
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is 76–98% effective in improving CRS patients’ symptoms.
  • Surgical outcomes can be compromised in the immediate post-operative period by scarring, adhesion formation, and early polyp recurrence.
  • Oral and topical corticosteroid therapy has become integral to the maintenance of successful surgical outcomes, the management of post-operative scarring and edema, and the prevention of nasal polyp recurrence.
  • Steroid-eluting sinus implants have been shown in clinical trials to improve postoperative outcomes after ESS by delivering localized, sustained release of corticosteroids directly onto inflamed sinus tissue.

What this study adds

  • This observational study is one of the first to use real-world evidence to assess the effect of steroid-eluting sinus implants on healthcare resource use (HCRU) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent sinus surgery with or without implants.
  • Use of implants significantly reduced HCRU, including all-cause outpatient visits (94.3% vs 96.6%, p < .001), all-cause otolaryngologist visits (47.3% vs 59.6%, p < .001), and all-cause ER/urgent care visits (9.2% vs 11.8%, p = .007), as well as sinus endoscopy (39.1% vs 43.8%, p = .003).
  • Use of implants had no significant effect on sinus procedures such as debridement and polypectomy, as well as sinus-related imaging such as CT, MRI, and x-ray.